London- more dangerous than New York City

New crime stats have shown that New York now is less dangerous than London. last week, new statistics were posted and they reveal that crime across the UK has increased 13 percent.

The US president, Donald Trump, claimed that the increased statistics were due to the “spread of radical Islam”. He also added, “we need to keep America safe”. These comments were referred to as ignorant and disruptive.

The criminal justice experts in the UK claim that the increase of crime in the UK, especially London, is due to the way the police are patroled. There has been a reduction in the police patrols in neighbourhoods of London.

Even though the population rate of London and New York City are around the same figure, it’s almost six times more likely to get burgled in London and one and a half times more likely to get robbed. London also has three times the number of victims of rape. The murder rate remains higher in New York, but it’s drastically decreasing. The two police departments have the same budget and amount of police officers.

There was a large spike in crime rates in New York City around the mid-1990s because of the crack cocaine epidemic. This resulted in a change in the approach from the NYPD. The NYPD now has a much larger amount of officers patrolling the streets, crowded places like train stations etc, and neighbourhoods. This differs from the current approach in the UK. Under the leadership of Mayor Rudy Giuliani and Bill Bratton, it was introduced a zero-tolerance approach. The fact that the force put such a huge amount of emphasis into community policing, has made a huge change and is the reason why the police rate in NYC is much different to the police rate in the UK.

Lately, the police of NYC have moved away from neighbourhoods and are focusing on more serious offences. Personally, I think that this will be a game changer once again. The crime rate has decreased due to the last approach under Mayor Rudy Giuliani, so why would you change it? Rory Geoghegan, head of criminal justice in the UK, said that a turnaround like the one we saw in NYC mid-1990s.

Having police around every corner makes it harder for people to commit crimes and therefore lower crime rates. Why is this something they would want to change? A change is not needed in NYC, a change is needed in London and the rest of the UK. The fact that the crime rate is lower in NYC than London is very controversial for many people, just because NYC always has been a dangerous city. Maybe it’s just so surrealistic that people don’t realize the facts and consequences…?

 

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Civil Rights

Martin Luther King Jr. was a fighter for black civil rights. He was one of the best-known advocates for nonviolent social change of the twentieth century. He was born in Atlanta. It was in 1955 that his oratorical skills and personal courage were first given national attention. In 1955, he and other civil rights activists were arrested for leading a boycott of a transportation company in Montgomery, Alabama. They required nonwhites to surrender their seats to white and stand at the back of the bus. Dr King did not like this. Over the following decades, Dr King wrote, spoke and organized protests and demonstrations that were nonviolent, to draw attention to the matter of racial discrimination and the demand to protect the rights of African-Americans.

In 1963, King organized a demonstration in Birmingham, Alabama. The demonstration was a peaceful demonstration until the white police force countered with police dogs and fire hoses. With this, they created a controversy which generated newspaper headlines throughout the world. This culminated in a march which attracted more than 250,000 protestors to Washington, was King delivered his “I have a dream” speech. With this speech, he envisioned a world where people were not divided by race.

Martin Luther King Jr. moved many people with many demonstrations towards the one goal of equal rights. He sacrificed a lot and dedicated his life to this matter.

Brexit- Scotland

Write a blog post explaining why Brexit it a controversial topic for people in Scotland. Be sure to include the facts given above and to cite your sources accurately.

The fight for Scotland’s independence has a few main topics. North Sea oil and gas reserves are very vital to Scotland’s independence. The currency has also been a very important area of disagreement. The Scottish government wants to keep the pound as a part of a formal currency union with the rest of the UK, under independence. The three main UK parties- the conservatives, labor and the liberal democrats do not agree with this. they say that whoever’s in power after the next election in the UK will not go for such a move.

A big question is if the people want independence and not just the Scottish parties. This is hard to say with certainty, but polling trends generally indicate that most people do not want independence. A poll for the Sunday Times suggested that, of those people that had made up their mind, 51% planned to back independence, while 49% intended to vote “no” for independence.

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An updated analysis was recently published and reveals that Brexit, which will result in the UK leaving the EU and therefore also the single market, will cost Scotland 16 billion a year. This analysis has created huge headlines and eyes are turning against Scotland. Scotland voted to become an independent country in 2014, and the result was as close as the vote about Brexit. 45% voted yes, they wanted to become an independent country, but 55% voted no, they still wanted to be a part of the UK. Now, in light of the new information about British economy following Brexit, Scotland’s first minister Nicola Sturgeon is trying to back a second referendum on Scottish independence. This is also because the majority of Scottish citizens wants to stay in the EU and gain profit from the single market. When the vote for leave or stay in the EU was happening, Scotland had a majority of people who wanted to leave (68%) instead of to stay (32%).

TO BE CONTINUED

Sources:

http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-26550736

 

“Black Lives Matter”

“Black lives matter” is an international activist movement which originated in the African-American community. It campaigns against violence and racism towards black people. The BLM movement regularly holds protests and speaks about how police kill black people and they border issues such as police brutality and racial inequality in the United States criminal justice system.

It was four years ago when the Black Lives Matter Global Network began to organize. It started as a chapter-based, member-led organization who had a mission to build local power and to intervene when there was inflicted violence upon Black communities by the state and vigilantes.

In the years since that, the Black Lives Matter Global Network has committed to struggling together and imagine a world free of anti-Blackness, where every Black person has the economic, social and political power to thrive, just as white.

 

To be continued

 

 

Northern Ireland

Read the material provided below and watch the videos. Write an article on your blog using material from the PowerPoint presentation to explain why this is a controversial issue today. Be sure to include historical facts, the process of Brexit and the views and concerns from both sides of the border. Be sure to list your sources.

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The conflict between the sides of the isle of Ireland

“The Irish question” or conflict, is mainly about the two groups of people fighting over the same land, the Unionists who are mainly Protestants, also referred to as Loyalists, and the Nationalists who are manly Catholics also referred to as Republicans. The Unionists would like the province to remain part of the United Kingdom. The Nationalists, however, would like Northern Ireland to be reunited with Ireland. Everyone has a point, the Unionists on the grounds of being the former majority in Northern Ireland, while the Nationalists on the grounds of being in the majority on the island of Ireland.

History

The English King Henry VIII was known for having many wives and killing some of them after they couldn’t provide him with a male heir, but also remembered as the king that colonized northern Ireland. After Henry renounced his Catholicism and established the Protestant Anglican Church, he feared a Catholic invasion by his enemies namely staunchly Catholic Spain and France. Ireland was Catholic, and he feared that it may be used by foreign troops for an assault against his kingdom. Therefore he decreed that Protestants would move from England and parts of Scotland to fertile lands in the north of Ireland. Henry and the English basically colonized parts of Ireland with Protestants in order to keep the Catholics in check. This settler project was intended to hinder foreign catholic troops from establishing a foothold in Ireland, but it had lasting consequences for the Irish island, all the way up to today.

In the wake of the demise of the British Empire, Ireland was granted its independence in the early 1920s. The partition plan divided the Irish island into two sovereign parts. Eire or the Republic and Ulster – the northern part. The parliament in London thought that the so-called Irish problem would disappear if Ireland was an integrated part of the union. This angered many Catholics and pleased many loyalist Protestants. Later on, Catholics felt oppressed by the majority Protestant and started to protest in the streets. This led to the British sending troops to contain the largely peaceful protests, but this just angered the Catholics even more. As we all know violence breeds violence. Later on, groups were created on both sides. The Ulster volunteer forces and the Irish Republican Army started infighting and sectarian violence.

The Troubles

By the late 1969s, there was a feeling among the minority that they had been pushed into the margins of society and turned into second-class citizens. inspired by the civil rights movement in the US, the Catholics took to the streets to demonstrate against suppression and bad treatment. the years of 1968 and 1969 have later been called the beginning of the period known as “the troubles”- thirty years long civil war between republicans and loyalists. In 1969, the British government sent in troops to restore order on the streets of Northern Ireland, but the violence just escalated.

The arrival of British troops angered the Republican as they viewed the troops as other forces sent in to keep them down. it also provoked the militant wing the Irish republican army (IRA)- the provisional IRA- fought for freeing Northern Ireland from British control. For the next thirty years, the province was thrown into a “Long War” where people lived with terror, threats and violence.

In 1998, the political parties in Northern Ireland and the two governments of the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom signed a peace treaty called the Belfast Agreement (Good Friday Agreement) which brought relative peace to the province. But it turned out that the Agreement was difficult to implement and a renegotiated agreement was signed in 2007. Since, 200, Northern Ireland has had a stable internal government (Stormont) where former enemies now cooperate to make sure that the province will avoid falling into the pitfalls of the past.

Brexit

Brexit is a process that is expected to lead Great Britain and maybe Gibraltar out of the EU. The background for Britain stepping out of the EU is the referendum of EU membership of 2016. This topic has been much discussed in media the last year. The happening has been Brexit and only the future can tell us what the outcome will give the influenced parts. It is expected to have consequences for the whole of the United Kingdom. Nationalists of Northern Ireland wanted the UK to remain in the EU, but unionists wanted to leave. Remained campaigners warned that a Brexit would lead to the re-establishment of a harder border along the 310-mile frontier between Northern Ireland and the Republic. It would now not be possible to use the North as a backdoor immigration route for the EU nationals. The leave campaigners contend that as there has been free travel areas between the UK and Ireland since 1923. The Republic of Ireland is not a member of Schengen free movement area, which means that this will not happen.

There will be established a workable arrangement instead, although the precise arrangement will depend on what kind of deal the UK make with the EU.

Views and concerns from both sides of the border

The absence of EU politics might play a large part in the issues that have previously derived on the isle of Ireland and are still ongoing. The conflict has set its mark and both sides still experience it. The Northern part of Ireland is currently a part of Great Britain, meaning that one part has left the EU, whilst the other is staying.

Sources:

Skrevet av Leon, Solveig, Mo og Hannah

 

The hate U give

““I’ve seen it happen over and over again: a black person gets killed just for being black, and all hell breaks loose. I’ve Tweeted RIP hashtags, reblogged pictures on Tumblr, and signed every petition out there. I always said that if I saw it happen to somebody, I would have the loudest voice, making sure the world knew what went down.
Now I am that person, and I’m too afraid to speak.”

I think this paragraph stands out to me because it is so relatable. You can have a large voice when something doesn’t involve you, but when something involves you or someone you love, you are supposed to speak louder, but you cant. That is pure humanity. Some people find courage in pain, and some people find fear. This is what really catches me with that phrase.

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UK and Brexit

Highlights of the article about Theresa May

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This is an analysis of an article in the Norwegian newspaper, Aftenposten. The article is about how the EU is dividing Theresa Mays’ conservative party. They write that whatever happens will make things worse.

The highlights of this article are that Theresa May has attempted to unblock Brexit talks in Brussels. Leaving the European Union meant a sharp increase in prices for food etc., making the average cost of a UK household around £260. This has hit the low-income families the hardest.

The largest highlight in this article and the largest highlight in British politics the last 50 years have been the European Union. It has cost the three last conservative prime ministers their job. When Theresa called an election in the Parliament last July, things didn’t go as planned.  Going into the election, Theresa had a twenty percent lead according to the polls. She won the election but lost the lower chamber of parliament, which lead to a ten-seat deal with members of the Ulster union.

After this happened, Theresa wanted to forfeit as well, but her party begged her to stay. Her authority disappeared with her disappearing into the lower chamber of parliament. She likely wants a two-year deal after 2019, where the UK is a subject of EUs laws and rules. This would then be what has been called, “EØS-light” or “EØS-minus”. This has gained a majority of the British citizens but will split the conservative party.

If Theresa May steps down, Boris Johnson is the candidate who will most likely win. But there are uncertainties with him as well as others. He has been accused of having his own Brexit political standpoint. There are also some that think of Boris Johnson as an unethical and sly.

The main highlight is what the economic results of Mays decision to pull out of Brexit have been, and who will eventually take her place if she steps down.

Recount

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Recount is an American movie from 2008. The movie is about the U.S presidential election in 2000, from the day when the American Supreme Court decided to end the recount in Florida. The movie is written by Danny Strong and directed by Jay Roach. 

In class we answered a few questions before we watched the movie:

What is the Electoral College?

You may think that the Electoral College is a place, but it’s really not. The Electoral college is a process. It was the founding fathers that established it in the Constitution as a compromise between the Presidential election by voting in Congress and the Presidential election by popular votes from citizens. The Electoral College consists of a selection of electors, 538 electors.

Why do we have an Electoral College and why was it considered necessary?

The Electoral College was created for two purposes. The first was to create a buffer between population and the selection of a President. The second is that it is a part of the government that gave extra power to the smaller states of the U.S. USA is the only country in the world that has this kind of a system. It was considered necessary because it gave as I wrote above, the smaller state an advantage. It gave them a political leverage, which was supposed to make the election fair.

What is the official procedure for presidential elections? Illustrate an approximate timeline of key events in any given presidential election year.

First, the U.S Constitution has some requirements for a presidential candidate. The candidate has to be a natural born citizen. The candidate has to be of the minimum age of 35 years. Lastly, the candidate has to have been a U.S resident for 14 years.

Step one: Primaries and caucuses
There are many people who want to be president. All of these people have their own ideas about what a well-functioning government is. People with similar ideas usually belong to the same party. this is where primaries and caucuses come in. The candidates from each political party campaign throughout the country to try to get as many followers as possible. In a caucus, party members select the best candidate through a series of discussions and votes. In a primary, party members vote for the best candidate who will represent them in the general election.

Step two: National conventions
Each party holds a national convention where there is selected a final president nominee. At each convention, the presidential candidate chooses a running “vice presidential candidate”. After this, there is the presidential candidate’s campaign where the candidates try to win the support from the population.

Step three: General Election
After the campaigns are finished, the general election begins. This is when people in every state across the whole of the U.S vote for one president and one vice president.  When the people vote, they are actually voting for a group. This group is called electors.

Step four: Electoral College
The fourth step is the Electoral college. This is what I wrote about earlier in this post. This is a system where each state gets a certain number of electors based on its representation in Congress. Then each elector cast one vote following the general election and the candidate that gets more than half of the votes (270) wins.

The newly elected president and vice president are inaugurated in January.

Is it possible for a president to win the popular vote but lose the election? How?

Yes, because the U.S has the system called the Electoral College it is highly possible that a candidate wins the popular vote, but loses the election.

Who were the candidates in the 2000 election and what happened?

The 2000 election was the 54th presidential election in the USA. The election was on the 7th of November 2000. The candidates where George W. Bush for president and Dick Cheney for vice president on the Republican side and Al Gore for president and Joe Lieberman for vice president on the Democratic side. Bush and Cheney won the election after several recounts. The controversy revolved around the result in Florida. Their result would determine the whole election. Several people meant that Al Gore had a claim for a recount as there was a difference of 500-2000 votes.

How was the Supreme court involved?

The Supreme Court was involved in the recount controversy in Florida 2000.  They decided that it was in conflict with the constitution, so therefore Bush was declared the election winner.

We also answered a few questions while watching the movie:

In every presidential election, the media will announce the new President and Vice President by the morning after election day; however, when is the President and Vice-President actually elected?

The President and Vice-President are actually elected a long time before the election. I’m unsure of when this is exactly.

What does it mean to “concede?”

To concede means to acknowledge something before it is officially established.

Why did Al Gore retract his concession?

Al Gore retracted because the numbers that came from Florida did not add up compared to the numbers Bush presented.

Why would a machine recount of Florida’s ballots tally a slightly different number than the first time? How was this a threat to the Bush campaign?

A machine recount is not 100% correct as some of the holes made in the voting ballot. This is why the machine count tallied a different number than the first count.

Why did the Democrats initiate a hand recount?

This was because the machine recount did not pick up on all the votes as the voting ballot was badly designed. This was also a threat to the Bush campaign because this meant that they might lose his Presidency.

What trend did the Democrats discover about old voting machines and the neighborhoods they serve?

They discovered that the machines were old and that the voting offices had a lack of maintenance. This resulted in the machines getting stacked up and then this led to the holes in the voting ballot being filled. The richer states did not have this problem. This is something that could highly affect the result of the election as a lot of the people from the poorer neighborhoods where Democrats.

Did the Republicans actively try to stop a hand recount? Why?

Yes, they tried to stop the hand recount as they also recognized the problem in the poorer states but didn’t act on it as it was in their favor.

Why did the Republicans want to count absentee ballots?

They wanted to count the absentee ballots as this was an advantage for them. if they put the absentee ballots together with the other votes, the percentage of Democratic voters would most likely decrease.

Are absentee ballots usually counted on Election Day?

These ballots are only counted when the election race is very tight. This is because the absentee ballots are a small percentage of all the ballots.

More questions that we answered:

In which court did James Baker think the Republicans would definitely lose?

In the State Court.

Which court did he think they would be more likely to win in the long run?

In the Supreme Court.

What did Baker mean when he suggested that “it’s time to exercise our first amendment right”? What is the first amendment?

The first Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits the making of any law respecting an establishment of religion, ensuring that there is no prohibition on the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering with the right to peaceably assemble or prohibiting the petitioning for a governmental redress of grievances.

What were the advisory opinions?

The law on whether or not you can demand a recount was very vague. The advisory opinion on Bush’s side was that unless there was something physically wrong with the system of the counting machines, there should be no recount. However, the Gore campaign had their own opinion on this topic which claimed the opposite of what Bush claimed.

Who represented Gore during the trials? Why was this lawyer recruited?

David Boies, because he was clever and a good spokesman.

What is the Equal Protection Clause?

The Equal Protection Clause is a part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, and it says that no state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction “the equal protection of the laws”.

Why did the Bush campaign think they had a small victory when they learned the Supreme Court didn’t set counting standards?

Because this meant that they were a small step ahead. While the Gore campaign would gain from a count with the possibility of more votes, the Bush campaign didn’t want to risk the lead that they had gained.

How do you feel about the fact that many counties did not run their ballots through the machines again?

I think that this shows an unethical and unfair attitude. I think that the fact that they could not be bothered to recount really shows a lack of respect.

Do you think Democrats should have begun planning for lawsuits earlier?

Yes, I think that they should have considered this earlier. The reason that they didn’t was that they thought the recount would give other results and that it wouldn’t be necessary for this.

Do you think the Texas voting law signed by Governor Bush helped Gore’s case or was it irrelevant to Gore winning in the Florida Supreme Court?

I think the law was relevant to help Gore’s case as it made it possible for them to demand a recount.

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